Mobile Lessons

Preparing to join a mobile learning revolution with some solid help. 

GUEST COLUMN | by Yolanda Ramos

CREDIT Verizon Mobile Learning Academy with ISTEThe numbers don’t lie. According to Futuresource Consulting, U.S. K-12 schools purchased nearly 2.5 million devices in the second quarter of 2014. There is a mobile learning revolution underway as schools around the country plan and implement new models for technology integration.

And the good news is that schools are seeing powerful results from the effective use of technology.

For example, results released earlier this year by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and the Verizon Foundation revealed that standardized test scores in math for students participating in a mobile learning program increased by more than four percent and teachers participating in the program reported that 35 percent of their students showed higher scores on classroom assessments; 32 percent showed increased engagement in the classroom; and 62 percent demonstrated increased proficiency with mobile devices.

Key to the mobile learning revolution’s success is ensuring all members of the school community are offered professional learning opportunities.

One critical lesson learned is that the key to the mobile learning revolution’s success is ensuring that all members of the school community – teachers, administrators, technology coaches and IT professionals – are offered professional learning opportunities to support them as they transform their schools into mobile learning environments.

That’s why ISTE, in collaboration with the Verizon Foundation, launched the Verizon Mobile Learning Academy (VMLA), a free, virtual professional learning program developed to help schools teams prepare for successfully integrating mobile technology into learning and teaching.

Developed for teams of administrators, classroom teachers and technology coaches, the facilitated, five-module program will be delivered online four times during the 2014-2015 school year. Working in collaboration with The Johns Hopkins University School of Education Center for Technology in Education (CTE) the academy offers a robust curriculum, aligned to the widely adopted ISTE Standards for learning, teaching and leading in the digital age.

ISTE instructional consultants will guide teams through mobile technology integration, teach them the ins and outs of creating lessons and activities that use mobile learning, and expand their knowledge of the latest mobile devices and education apps with an eye toward the very best and most appropriate uses for students.

In addition, the VMLA will focus on helping educators learn how to guide their students to safely use mobile technology, while also encouraging creativity.

Best of all, school teams who participate in the VMLA will quickly discover that they are not alone in the mobile learning revolution. They have joined forces with their colleagues from around the country to truly transform learning and teaching in their schools.

Yolanda Ramos is ISTE’s senior director of professional development services and has more than 20 years of experience in K-12, higher education and learning technologies industries. At ISTE, she leads the development, implementation and assessment of professional learning programs and is focused on building a vibrant and growing portfolio of offerings to meet the needs of educators in the use of technology to support learning, teaching and leadership.

Posted in guest column | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Smart Data for Schools

A rich and bold perspective from the founder of one of the original edtech companies.

INTERVIEW | by Victor Rivero

Harvey Hughes of SEAS EducationIn an environment of compliance and accountability, districts require tools for tracking individual student achievement. A leader in education plan management software for schools, SEAS Education has been around since 1995 and helped thousands of school districts achieve goals of fidelity, compliance, accountability, collaboration, achievement, and positive student outcomes. For example, SEAS Achieve transforms a district’s paper forms and disparate processes into a unified, intuitive, interactive digital environment. Monitoring and reporting upon multiple student plan types provides educators with critical new insights while also bolstering a

You would tell a story of someone who made a positive impact in your life. Someone who, instead of teaching you a subject, may have just taught you how to learn.

district’s resource efficiency. The company’s education software products and services are designed to save teachers and administrators time as they juggle the management of necessary paperwork with devoting ample time to their students. The “secret” to their success is their team’s ability to listen to the anxieties and to discern the needs of those on the front lines of our educational system. As founder Harvey Hughes has long told teachers and administrators, “You guys built this. We just listened.” An innovative technology company dedicated to solving problems in education, the company’s original product was born out of the need for school districts to manage the deluge of paperwork required by the new Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA). Today, over 120 CAS associates serve both special education and general education nationwide from offices in eleven states. In this lively discussion, Harvey (who himself has had a colorful career with experiences ranging from Walmart to the International Space Station) ponders both the details and the broader picture. Enjoy!

Victor: There’s a lot of activity in mobile. There’s a lot of smartphones in students hands. What are the opportunities? What are the caveats? What’s next in this area?

Harvey: In education the issue of mobilization is about timely tracking and reporting of on-demand measurements. Just in time information can be delivered immediately to keep the learning cycle moving. For our At-Risk and Special populations, such as, Behavior RTI students, the classroom teacher can note a student’s behavior on their ‘daily report card’ in real-time. That same information can reside on the student’s and parent’s smartphone, giving them immediate feedback.

There are numerous service providers (speech pathologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, etc.) who can use a mobile device to quickly log their services no matter where they are delivering their service (in the library, in the gen ed classroom, etc.). With cloud integration, manual paperwork is radically reduced.

In the general education space, a teacher can conduct an online skills assessment for a struggling learner and then quickly push specialized content to the student’s mobile device. The content can also be sent to the parent for homework activities.

Mobilization also helps both students and teachers achieve healthy time and resource management. The caveat is that mobile devices need to be accessible in both the school and at home. We’re also excited and looking in to the coming Apple Watch. This device can assist in providing a personalized educational dashboard for students and even help with tasks such as monitoring a student’s vitals for health care.

The future will be about distributed learning – meaning that maybe students don’t come to class every day but rather the assignment is online. Now students get sick, and they miss a day. In the future they will be able to complete assignments online and not miss a beat. I think higher education is taking a lead in this area but general education is catching up quickly.

Victor: You’ve been providing educational planning applications for a myriad of school districts for 18 years now – you’ve seen much change – could you touch on a few milestone highlights and catch us up to present time?

Harvey: When we started 18 years ago it was about building electronic portfolios for just the special needs students – roughly 12-14% of the overall population. And even then it was all about compliance to federal regulations. Meaning, “was the student disability properly identified and placed in the correct subgroup for individualized help?” Technology was extremely limited and grossly inadequate to perform the complicated processes of IDEA, Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act. Back then the SEAS program was a PC based system and often shared between multiple teachers in a building. Collaborative work and accurate reporting was extremely difficult.

Once technology improved from PC based systems to Wide Area Networks (WAN) then to the Web (Cloud as we call it now) and application development technology improved, the industry exploded with innovation, with taking concept and ideas from the design boards, to prototypes, to management tools much more quickly. It was a very exciting time to take the educator’s comments of “what if we could do this” to “You mean like this?” The technology maturation process during this time probably had as much benefit to the education industry as any other I know. So many people where affected by having immediate access to an effective education model of collaboration, real-time data collection and accountability reporting. The first transition was to more of a compliance model of “did we identify the student that needs extra help” to an education accountability model of “are the identified students showing progress?” Recent advances in technology have allowed the world to ask the question “shouldn’t every child have individualized learning plan designed to their individualized skills and preference for learning?” — and so that is the overall shift in the last 18 years. As technology matured over these years, it became evident that technology can empower this and many other major transitions.

Victor: What formative experiences in your own life helped you arrive to where you are now? Why is the timing right for what you are doing?

Harvey: As far as my experience that helped form a passion for education as an industry – I am the product of a small town, caring school system, where every student mattered and was nurtured to be all they can be. I remember before “college and career readiness” was a standard term being coached and encouraged by my counselor to go to college.

My school even went so far as to provide me with jobs to support myself. All the while they instilled in me the belief that I could pursue my wildest dreams. Now I have the opportunity with SEAS to pay it forward. It is very rewarding to be able to help educators become more effective in helping other students.

As far as my experience that helped form a passion for technology in education – Looking back it’s interesting to think that SEAS is one of the original edtech companies, but looking ahead we struggle like every edtech company to continue to be relevant to the growing needs of educators – hopefully making their lives easier and more effective. Nimble advancement in technology is the only way we can keep up the pace.

We struggle like every edtech company to continue to be relevant to the growing needs of educators … Nimble advancement in technology is the only way we can keep up the pace.

Why is the timing right? Education is one of the last frontiers for technology opportunities. In that, banks have built up an industry and consolidated, same with the cellular business. Education is one of the coolest industries for technology companies, both startups and mature companies, because I am not sure this industry will ever completely consolidate or stop trying to improve, define, and deliver a quality education to every student. Educators have a natural desire to nurture and help students achieve more. So as long as education models evolve so will there be the need for evolving technology companies to assist.

Victor: What lessons from NASA and the International Space Station do you carry with you that influence your current work? What are those/that lesson(s) and how do they inform what you’re doing now?

Harvey: NASA has lofty goals for science and technology and they filled the room with people who thought in terms of “Yes it can be done”. Basically my time with NASA taught me to be a problem solver. Some basic concepts are: introduce the elements of time and money at the end of the equation, their are no wrong answers or bad ideas in “brainstorming”, bring passion to the problem but not emotion, don’t have an ego and don’t be intimidated working with a smart team because everyone is important in collaboration.

These are exactly the concepts we bring to our design teams at SEAS. No one person knew exactly how we were going to solve our technical challenges when we got started!

Victor: What anecdote or story might you relate concerning the origin of SEAS? Was it gradual, or one fine day? How did it unfold? What was your light bulb moment – if there was one?

Harvey: One day I was finishing up a programming project for a large district in Arkansas, while giving the superintendent the final status report, he asked me what my next project was going to be. I remember telling him that I wanted to focus on a worthwhile problem, something that could help a lot of people and something I would be passionate about. He said great, but before you go on your life’s journey would you help me do one more project? He said “talk to my Special Ed department, they have issues I fully do not understand.” I met with the team in March of 1996 and they explained the issues with IDEA compliance and reauthorization. The Special Education director said while this is a problem they have, if I can solve it, every teacher in the country will need to use it. That was the “Aha” moment, and since that day I have worked on nothing else.

Victor: Let’s talk about your product/service and partnership with Metova. What is your product and how does it work? Who is it for and what can it ultimately do for students and educators?

Harvey: Originally SEAS developed software to help educators deal with compliance and accountability for our special needs population, specifically in the aftermath of the Individuals With Disabilities in Education Act of 1990. With the transition to Results-Driven Accountability (RDA) for all student achievement, SEAS has evolved in to an electronic Individualized Learning Plan (ILP) ranging from Special Needs populations to Gifted and Talented, from birth to graduation, known as College and Career Readiness. SEAS basically organizes all the moving parts around academic and behavior improvement plans by tapping in to all Assessment data to identify areas of academic weakness, and then creating an intervention plans with goals, objectives and interventions aligned to grade level expectations. Then SEAS organizes intervention resources such as content, supplemental workbooks and tutorial software aligned to the target area of need. Also, SEAS helps teachers implement intervention strategies by setting up a scope, frequency and duration of intervention, thus measuring effectiveness and progress of the intervention resource, instruction and student’s achievement.

To summarize, SEAS helps educators implement and engage technology, allowing them to be more effective in teaching to the individual student. The reason SEAS is widely used among educators is because it is the only type of system in education that collects, reports, analyzes and enables corrective action at the heart of the instruction, between the teacher-student relationship at classroom level.

SEAS suite of products tailors to several specific educational needs:

  • SEAS Achieve supports all school district education plan types
  • SEAS Medicaid provides advanced Medicaid reporting services
  • SEAS Class helps teachers identify student skills or functional level of academic performance
  • SEAS SmartEval enables educators to create evaluation and assessment reports
  • SEAS University is a professional development platform for online delivery of training and certification
  • SEAS AvaTalker for iPad helps nonverbal children communicate through pictures

It’s important to always look outside of our internal capabilities. In doing that we have discovered some impressive technologies – and Metova offered these. We enjoyed working with Metova so much we created a formal partnership of collaboration, project management and software development. They bring insight into the world of mobilization and distributive technology. Together we are challenging the possibilities of innovative technology to benefit students and teachers. Our passion is to help K-12 educators meet the individual needs of all students, by leveraging on demand technology in real-time.

Victor: More broadly, what are your thoughts on technology in education these days?

Harvey: Technology is allowing the science and art of education to come alive in ways we only dreamed of many years ago. Consider this point of view, there is a science to the education model of “grade level expectation” basically when subjects are introduced and at what age students can learn these concepts. For example, scientific research has shown that the mathematical building blocks of Algebra such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are best introduced around 5th, 6th and 7th grades to prepare for Algebra introduced in the curriculum around 8th grade. Algebra is basically the correlation of these concepts under one subject. I am convinced that we all struggle and fall behind in Algebra. Maybe we only fall behind a day, a week or a semester but the Art of education is to know individually who is behind, where they are behind and how to catch them up quickly to the pace of the class curriculum. By introducing the correct technology designed to Assess where an individual student’s skills are deficient, build a Plan with interventions aligned to the exact grade level content or strand of learning, for example 6th grade numerations, then correlate the lesson plan with interventions such as tutorial software to Teach that concept and bring the student back to the pace of the class all before their next class meets. I call this intervention model the “APT” Model (Assess, Plan, Teach). That is the purpose and the challenge of education technology, to help educators be more effective in helping every student reach their potential at the exact moment they fall behind. Educators have an impossible task of dealing with all the compliance and accountability issues of today and technology has to be innovative to help with this challenge.

Victor: Even more broadly speaking, what are your thoughts on the state of education today?

Harvey: Our society has evolved to where everything is real-time. We want information immediately, we want it to be accurate and we want to make quick and decisive decisions. We struggle to strike a balance between our rights and responsibilities. I think education is

We want information immediately, we want it to be accurate and we want to make quick and decisive decisions. 

finding itself with the same transitional concerns as our society. I think education over the last 20 years has moved from a 80/20 rule of teaching to 80% of the student and finding a way to deal with the 20% of At-Risk students, to a model of teaching to each student based on their individual skills and preference for learning.

Education has moved from a goal of graduation percentages to the goal of graduating every student prepared for college or career. I think education is taking a serious concern and appropriate steps to help guarantee a safe environment with a focus on nondiscrimination and anti-bullying initiatives. I think when you add up all the moving parts of compliance, accountability, safety, security, rights, responsibilities, individualized progress, open classroom, Flipping Classroom, large classrooms, online classes, collaborative learning, assessment and end-of-course exams just to name a few of the anxieties, it can seem overwhelming and unmanageable.

On a positive note, I have never seen so many people committed and empowered to find a way to be more effective, through outreach programs, online learning, after school programs, teaching styles focused on academic results and teachers willing to change and adopt to new ways of reaching and engaging students. Often times these new strategies include the technology that is in the student’s hands – smartphones. Instead of starting the class by saying, “turn off your phones and be quiet” they are reaching the students by saying “turn on your phones, and collaborate with your neighbor!”

Education is adapting to teach strategies and lesson plans to the lifestyle of the student. By being proactive and reaching students where their minds are already – in their technology devices – education is eliminating any and every excuse why a student cannot learn at their individual abilities and style. Which is super cool, especially when I am in the business of making that model work better with technology. If you are over 30 years old, just imagine what your education experience would have been like if you had immediate access to all the information in the world in the palm of your hands! Why would we still be teaching from chapter 5, section 2 of the 7th grade math book right after a big lunch and 45 minutes of dodge ball on the playground?

Victor: Any advice for those in and around education out there these days?

Harvey: A clinical definition of public education might be, to transfer knowledge in a safe and nurturing environment. Yet if I ask you who was your favorite teacher I bet you would stop, think and start smiling. You would tell a story of someone who made a positive impact in your life. Someone who, instead of teaching you a subject, may have just taught you how to learn. Maybe more of a mentor than a teacher. So, if for the vast majority of us school was more than a place to learn but a place to develop, then we should all have a natural desire to pay it forward and help with our talents.

Victor: Any other words of wisdom, parting thoughts about mobile potential, and where the world is going in the next few years?

Harvey: With the advancement of software and hardware technology, everything we do will be mobilized. My tablet has replaced my PC, my smartphone has replaced my land line. The next transition will be to utilize this technology to connect and communicate silo’ed data more efficiently. Data collaboration and Data Analytics for better Data-driven decisions or what I like to call Smart Data. The phrase ‘data-driven decision making’ has been around for a long time but with the advancement of smarter analytic tools, this area of technology will grow rapidly. We have access to more data today, we can tie it together easier and we can add a layer of “what if” statements to the equation and predict the outcomes. This is a very exciting area for technology and one we are working heavily in education. Since we are in the data collection business and tracking student achievement metrics such as successful intervention content, successful teaching strategies and student progress, we can start utilizing data analytics to help prescribe strategies that work best on a local, state and national level. All industries will benefit from smarter data.

Victor: Anything we missed that you’d like to address here?

Harvey: The better education can harness the power of social media, the more effective the Individualized Learning Plan model will be. Educators have a natural desire to nurture, share and care for any struggling learner. The best part of social media is they can collaborate in a world network.

Victor Rivero is the Editor in Chief of EdTech Digest. Write to: victor@edtechdigest.com

Posted in interviews | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Real-World Design, Supported

Fulfillment and inclusion via cloud implementation at a Rhode Island school.

GUEST COLUMN | by James Galib

CREDIT Roger Williams UniversityAt Roger Williams University (RWU), we are committed to educating our students in a technological environment that mimics what they will find in the real world. Our architecture program in particular is known for blending rigorous technical and design curricula with a well-rounded liberal arts foundation that prepares those students for successful professional careers.

Building an infrastructure that opens up a full range of high-end performance to our students without the need to purchase and maintain thousands of workstations is a huge win.

The increasing shifts toward computerized design, BYOD, and telecommuting led us to seek out a method of giving architecture students the flexibility to work from any location on any device, even while using graphics- intensive applications like Autodesk’s AutoCAD® and Revit®, and Adobe® Creative Suite® 6. The tremendous variety of devices on the market coupled with the need to control access and distribution of the applications for licensing reasons made implementing a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) the clear choice for achieving these objectives. In a VDI, the server hosts the desktop, runs the applications, and processes the graphics. The end-user device simply acts as a terminal, transmitting commands and receiving fully-rendered pixels.

Virtualization and the ability to remotely access a desktop and applications have been around for a while. The problem is that none of these solutions can handle intense graphics, because they do not include GPU support. Instead, they rely on the server CPU to handle the processing and rendering. Thus, while implementing a VDI held out the promise of delivering the real-world experience our students need while eliminating the clutter and expense of workstations, the lack of graphics support was the Achilles heel. Frame rates plummeted below usable levels as soon as more than 8-10 people connected to the VDI—hardly conducive to effective learning. We knew that VDI was the way to go, but trying to find a workable model for implementation became more than a little frustrating after a while.

Then our systems integrator introduced us to NVIDIA GRID technology, which provides virtualized GPUs to relieve the server CPU from those duties and deliver workstation-like graphics performance in a virtualized environment. We rolled out Dell PowerEdge servers running Citrix’s XenServer with NVIDIA’s GRID technology for GPU virtualization, and—in my opinion—saved the entire project.

Roger Williams built out a custom VDI system that we named “rCloud” that features Dell EqualLogic storage, Dell PowerConnect switching, and the aforementioned Dell PowerEdge servers running a total of twelve NVIDIA GRID K2 boards through Citrix XenServer. The vGPU technology built into GRID allows up to 8 to 16 concurrent users to share one GPU, meaning that rCloud can support between 96 to 192 concurrent graphics users in its current form.

Our IT Group saw immediate improvement with the graphics performance on virtual machines. Even better, our students responded enthusiastically to the ability to access graphics-intensive applications like AutoCAD inside or outside the lab while seeing the same high level of performance on any device. They report that rCloud is very easy to access and runs very smoothly, even on lower-end devices. Thanks to NVIDIA GRID, the VDI at Roger Williams delivers a huge value-add to our students and will allow them—and us—to save money on hardware and software in the long run.

We are now following up on the great success of this first VDI deployment by rolling out rCloud to the Engineering department, with the ultimate goal of making it accessible to all students. Right now, 1,000 RWU students (about a quarter of the student body) have access to rCloud with varying levels of graphics power allotted based on their area of study. We plan to use a mix of NVIDIA GRID K1 and K2 boards to accomplish this. The K2 boards will be dedicated to graphics power users like the architecture and engineering students, while the K1 boards will ensure that any student can still experience seamless graphics performance even on more basic applications like Microsoft® Office and Internet Explorer.

Achieving the vision of building a VDI that opens up a full range of high-end performance to our students without the need to purchase and maintain thousands of workstations is a huge win for everyone, as is allowing students to work on their familiar devices without any compatibility concerns. It is also deeply satisfying to know that even our students with the most limited budgets will receive the exact same level of service as everyone else.

James Galib is the IT Director for Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island. He is responsible for all operational activities of the IT department and for providing direction and support for IT solutions that enhance mission-critical business operations.

Posted in guest column | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

How to Save a Million Dollars

A university IT perspective on creating an all-wireless residence life environment. 

GUEST COLUMN | by Richard Chan

CREDIT Aruba NetworksAt West Chester University, the largest of the 14 universities in Pennsylvania’s State System of Higher Education, we faced a significant IT challenge. Our 5,000+ students living on campus were bringing their own wireless routers and plugging them into the wired ports in our residence halls and student apartments. As the volume of these routers grew, the problems caused by interference – and the resulting calls to our Help Desk – escalated. Clearly, we had to figure out a better way to deliver the reliable, high-performing wireless access our students were demanding, while meeting the network security and cost efficiency parameters that our IT Department required.

The new 802.11ac student housing wireless LAN (WLAN) is also supporting online courses, distance learning, social media and HD video streaming.

After reviewing our options, we elected to deploy a new 802.11ac infrastructure throughout our student housing, covering both indoors and out. The higher speeds, throughput and security of 802.11ac make it a solid match for supporting the escalating number of devices and bandwidth-intensive applications our students are using on campus. Working with technology solutions provider Comm Solutions, we deployed an Aruba Networks Gigabit Wi-Fi infrastructure and can now accommodate the more than 50,000 unique devices we see on the network almost daily. Additionally, by eliminating cabling costs and going all-wireless in our student housing, we’ve been able to realize over $1 million in total cost savings. As an added bonus, decreases in electrical consumption and wired switch cooling costs have offered significant reductions in the carbon footprint of our student residence facilities, matching our larger sustainability initiatives and goals by enabling us to reduce our carbon emissions by over 100 metric tons.

In addition to providing for our students’ basic wireless needs, the new 802.11ac student housing wireless LAN (WLAN) is also supporting online courses, distance learning, social media and HD video streaming. So far, we have been getting positive reviews of the network from our students. They appreciate the ability to reliably connect from anywhere in the residence areas.

The new infrastructure is comprised of over 1,000 indoor and outdoor access points (APs) with the company’s ClientMatch™ technology, which intelligently pairs wireless devices with the best available AP to ensure the highest network performance and the best user experience. It does this by gathering performance information from mobile devices and using it to intelligently steer each device to the best AP based on signal strength, traffic load and connection type. With ClientMatch, our students are able to move seamlessly between locations served by the Wi-Fi network.

With the number of apps being used by our students continually rising, the AppRF technology in our APs has been important in helping to ensure critical apps have priority on the network. With AppRF, we can set a policy and limit bandwidth for streaming video from specific apps for specific groups of users. Just as easily, all streaming video apps can be rate-limited across all users to ensure first priority is given to academic related apps.

Robust security and management capabilities were also a key consideration when making decisions about the new student housing network. We are using the same company’s ClearPass Access Management System to manage network policies, onboard and manage devices securely and admit guest users, all from a single platform. With ClearPass, we are able to get the 50,000 unique devices we are seeing daily connected and configured quickly and efficiently. Our students can now configure their own devices for secure access without involving our IT department, saving time and resources. We can also automatically check every computing device that connects to the network, regardless of ownership or type, to ensure it meets security compliance requirements. Devices that fail to comply can be redirected for remediation. In addition, we are able to use contextual attributes for controlling network traffic priority, which ensures wireless activities related to teaching and learning, aren’t competing with off-hours endeavors.

On the network management front, we are utilizing Aruba’s AirWave Network Management System to help us diagnose network issues. With AirWave, we are able to access a visual representation of each AP, and its location, at every facility, along with the number of users connected to a specific AP and whether they’re using an institution-owned or BYOD device. We are also able to access current and historical device information and reports on applications and their performance. With this level of visibility, we can resolve in minutes problems that previously took hours to address, improving our operational efficiency and reducing network downtime.

With the new student housing infrastructure, more than 95% of our campus has wireless coverage. As our connectivity needs continue to evolve, due to changes such as offering more online courses or mixed classrooms, we plan to move to 802.11ac and all-wireless for the entire campus. The success of the residence life deployment is giving us the confidence to review the potential of an all-wireless enterprise, campus-wide.

Richard Chan is Assistant Director of Networking and Telecommunications at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.

Posted in guest column | Tagged , , | Leave a comment